Recommendations on the choice of material

Structure and variety of fibres and yarns

Short recommendations on the choice of material:
•For production, where there should be no static electricity we use only natural fibers;
• For human and cargo protection (belay ropes)- nylon products;
• For use in corrosive environments - polyester, polypropylene;
• If you need a light-resistance - polyester, polypropylene.

Classification, properties and applications of textile materials

1. Synthetic (nylon, polypropylene, polyester, etc.)
2. Artificial (acryl, viscose and others)
3. Natural (cotton, jute, sisal, wool, silk natural)

Nylon-6 fiber

Nylon-6 is a synthetic material from the group of polyamides obtained by polymerization of caprolactam at a temperature of 260 - 270 C. Polyamide fibers are characterized by high strength, high elasticity, abrasion and alkali resistance of microorganisms, but at temperatures above 120 ° C decreases the strength of polyamide fibers. They adsorb more moisture than polyester fibers and is much easier to stain. The high cost of the products is determined by the complexity of obtaining nylon feedstock and manufacturing steps of polyamide fibers. Nylon-6 fiber is stronger fibers, breaking length is 40-60 km, and fine cotton is only 36 km. Hygroscopic property of nylon fibers is relatively low - 3.6 - 6%, its share - 1.14, and vegetable fibers (cotton and bast) - 1,45-1,52. Polyamide nylon-6 fiber characterized by a small change in strength and elongation properties in the water, high resistance to alkalis and weak acids. Polyamide fibers have relatively low light fastness, little resistant to acids and oxidizing agents. Nylon is soluble in concentrated solutions of mineral and formic acid. Solar irradiation and high temperature on nylon fiber leads to its oxidation and loss of strength, light- and heat stabilizers added to the fiber are used to prevent this destruction.

Polyester fiber

It is polyester. In terms of production of polyester fibers occupy the first place in the world. Complex of properties of the fibers can be used both in the art, and for the production of consumer goods. A feature of these fibers is a combination of high strength (both at PKA yarns 40-50 gf / tex, elongation at break of 35-40 km) from the high initial modulus (3-5 times higher than that of polycrystalline diamond filaments) which defines a high resistance to crease and the ability to save form. The polyester fiber is not hygroscopic (at 65% relative humidity absorbs 0.4-0.5%: water). The strength of the fibers in the wet state does not change (100-102%) in a node, it is 88-93%. Polyester has high elasticity (5-6% elongation is fully reversible). Elongation conventional thread like PKA 20-25%. Glassware little crushed (crush-resistant fiber). Resistance to bending and abrasion at high polyester fiber, but lower than PKA fiber (abrasion resistance in nylon 4-4.5 times higher). In contrast, polyamide fibers, polyester have high light fastness and heat stability significantly - do not alter the strength of the steel prolonged heating at a temperature of 150 "C. Polyester fiber - heat-resistant (for 1000 hours at 150 "C loses only 50% strength). Fiber has a high resistance to low temperatures, -50, -60 "C retains elasticitty. Polyester is highly resistant to various kinds of chemical attack. It dissolves only by boiling for 30 minutes in 40% - solution of potassium hydroxide. Plonost fiber is 1.33 - 1.38 g/cm3, melting point 255-280 "C. Fiber badly stained by conventional methods. Products from polyester fibers are highly resistant to abrasion, resistant to acids and oxidants, but low resistance to nitric and sulfuric acids, and alkalis. Polyester fiber in product retains its shape, glassware have wool-like pretend they are warm to the touch, easy to wash, they dry quickly and have low shrinkage and resistant to bacteria and microorganisms. However, they are prone to have high peel and electrified. Polyester fiber is an insulating material. The high dielectric property saves it in the wide range of temperatures. Polyester fibers are used for the production of fabrics, knitted fabrics, brushes, synthetic fur, zippers, felt, sewing thread, surgical thread, cord, conveyor belts, fire belts, ropes, cables, fire hoses, nets, safety belts (due to the high initial modulus under the action of the impact load and the fiber is not stretched).Technical threads are used for rubber products, textile threads are smooth or texturing.

Polypropylene fiber
Polypropylene refers to a class of polyolefin fibers. Of synthetic polymers, polyolefin are among the most accessible. Polypropylene fiber has a set of performance properties. Fiber strength in dry and wet condition is sufficiently high of 35 to 80 gf / tex. In the wet strength of polypropylene fibers is not changed. Elongation of polypropylene fiber in the dry and wet the same, 30-40% to 12-15% of high-strength fibers. Elasticity is high enough. Density of polypropylene fiber is the lowest among all the fibers, is 0.91 g/cm3. Products of polypropylene fibers are the easiest. This fiber floats on water. It is highly resistant to abrasion in dry and wet condition. However, it is considerably lower than that of polyamide fibers. Polypropylene has sufficiently low water absorption, moisture absorption of 0.01-0.02%. Polypropylene has the highest rate of capillary rise of moisture, high speed transport of moisture, high thermal insulation properties, high-speed drying. Polypropylene fiber is sound absorbing fiber. Polypropylene fibers have good electrical insulating properties. Polypropylene has high heat resistant and freeze-resistant (holds up to 70 "C) and low temperature resistant. Melting point of polypropylene is quite low at 170" C. Polypropylene has absolute resistance to aggressive media (concentrated acids, alkalis, aqua regia). At room temperature is resistant to organic solvents. Polypropylene is resistant to microbes, fungi, has good hygienic properties, dust and dirt repelling properties. Polypropylene fibers used in the technical field for making nets, ropes, rubber products, filter fabrics for use in aggressive environments, work wear, etc. Also widely used for the production of goods of wide application: carpets, blended yarn, underwear, sportswear, fabrics, knitted fabrics, non-wovens, upholstery fabrics, packing cloth, twine, cordage, etc.

Cotton fiber
Cotton fibers - are fibers covering the seeds of cotton plants. Cotton - an annual plant that grows in hot climates. A base material (94-96%), which consists of cotton fiber, is cellulose. The length of the cotton fibers is between 1 and 55 mm. Depending on the length of the fibers are divided into short-fiber cotton (20-27 mm), upland (28-34 mm) and long staple (35-50 mm). Cotton length of less than 20 mm is not called strand, it is impossible to work out of yarn. Between the length and thickness of the cotton fibers, there is a definite relationship: the longer the fiber, so they are thinner. An important property is its cotton Water absorption (8 - 12%), and therefore, cotton fabrics have good hygienic properties. Cotton has a high thermal stability - the destruction of the fibers to 140 ° C does not occur. Density of is 1.52 g/cm3 cotton. Durability 22-36 gf / tex, elongation 7-8%. The fibers are strong enough. A distinctive feature of the cotton fiber is increased tensile strength in the wet state by 15-17% due to the increase in the fiber cross-sectional area twice as strong as a result of swelling in water. Cotton fiber is more stable than viscose and silk, to light, but the light fastness of inferior bast fibers and wool. Cotton is highly resistant to the action of alkalis, which is used in the finishing of cotton fabrics. The fibers swell strongly, shrink, become non crimped, smooth, their walls thicken, the channel narrows, increases strength, enhanced gloss, better colored fibers, firmly holding the dye. Because of the low elasticity of cotton fiber has a high creases, high shrinkage, low resistance to acids. Cotton is used for the production of fabrics for different purposes, knitwear, nonwoven fabrics, curtains and lace products, sewing thread, lace, laces, ribbons, etc. Cotton linters are used in the manufacture of medical, apparel, furniture wool. Cotton woven is in the form used for the manufacture of various products (yarn, rope, cordage, ropes).

Jute fiber
Jute fiber (poop Calcutta hemp) is an exotic textile material, which is imported into Europe from the East. On par with cotton, flax and hemp, jute belongs to the most important vegetable fibers. Size consumption globally jute ranks second after cotton. Jute is one of the fiber (bast) plants of global importance in the stems which contain 20-25 % of valuable fiber having the same strength as hemp. Single fiber jute is much shorter such as flax and hemp fiber. Its maximum length is 4 mm. Jute fiber is very rough, dry, brittle, but strong burst. It has good spinning qualities. Other exclusive property of jute fiber is highly hygroscopic. Hygroscopicity it exceeds the principal vegetable fibers. At high relative humidity jute contains up to 30% moisture, while remaining dry to the touch. Chemically, the jute fiber is significantly different from other vegetable fibers. It contains a lot of lignin and bastin impurities (a substance related lignin, but more flexible). Advantages of jute - cheapness, cleanliness fiber, lightness, high hygroscopic and coverage (for flattening yarn strands retain their shape and in the future).But jute fiber is free from major technical drawbacks: rudeness fiber, fast damage from water, a small lifetime. Natural coloring jute is yellow, reddish and brown colors. The best varieties of jute are light yellow, sometimes grayish-yellow or grayish-silver color and characterized by high uniformity of thickness, good gloss and certain softness. Lower class painted in dark yellow or reddish-brown color, have less shine and more rigid. Eventually jute darkens, loses its gloss and decreases in strength, especially when exposed to moisture. The advantage of jute fiber is that it is most suited to the tree on the content of lignin (a natural high molecular weight polymer that binds the cellulose fibers in wood). Its presence defines the mechanical properties and permeability of wood. It is therefore widely used in jute production Between-joisting sealant insulation for wooden houses. Natural fiber with silky soft sheen, converts interior fits perfectly into a wide range of natural colors. People from ancient times used for manufacturing jute ropes, rough clothing. By the end of the 18th century, new technologies, of jute fiber began to spin wool and weave jute cloth.Due to the structural features, jute fiber - strong enough, but rough and tough, so it cannot get out of yarn for the manufacture of fine fabrics. Due to the hygroscopic properties of jute bags make that perfectly absorb moisture, but do not miss it inside, bagged product. Currently jute is mainly used for the manufacture of ropes, twines, sack packaging various types of furniture and packing tissue to produce the basics of linoleum. Jute burlap is also used for packing more expensive types of textile fibers: linen, cotton, wool. The best varieties of jute cloth and go to the production of tufted carpets jute, also make cheap woven carpets or rugs painted in bright colors. Jute makes mats, bags, shoes, paper, geotextiles. Jute is used to create a composite plastic that retain the ability jute fibers "breathe."

Sisal fiber
Sisal - a hard, rough natural fiber obtained from the leaves of plants Agava sisolana. Fibers isolated from fresh leaves without any special processing. Elementary sisal fibers have a length of 2-2.5 mm, technical - 0.6-1.5 m; shiny, yellowish color. On the strength of sisal and abaca inferior characterized by greater fragility than hemp. It is used to make ropes, nets, brushes, etc.